Guiding Principles of Broadband Internet
An Internet connection must support these guiding principles to be designated “broadband,” (see “Endnotes” for technical specifications that underpin guiding principles). The Internet connection must be:
- Standards Based Architecture: The system will interoperate with all other systems and is easy to support.
- Highly Available and Scalable: The network connection is available at any moment in time, wherever users, places or things need it, any time they need it, and the system can scale in capacity to all sessions and applications dynamically without significant additional capital outlays or system delays.
- Symmetrical: the bandwidth (information carrying capacity) of the network connection is symmetrical. This means the speed and capacity of data download and upload are equal. Symmetry is necessary to support point‐to‐point and cloud-based applications. Low latency of the symmetrical signal is essential to effective applications performance over the symmetrical connection.
- Supports differentiation: A differentiated system is one that supports multiple Classes of Service (CoS) and Quality of Service (QoS) for all applications that require it.
- Neutral and Open Access: There are no barriers to entry for users and providers to access each other. The playing field is level, meaning there are facilities, contractual mechanisms, published rates, and oversight in place to ensure access is open to all users and providers.
- Ubiquitous and Equitable: Ubiquity means physical accessibility of the network to everyone, and equitability means costs are the same for everyone to provide applications and services over the system or use applications and services on the system regardless of geographic point of ingress/ egress or demographic characteristics of the locale.
- Balance Competition and Cooperation: The system and processes promote competition in services and applications. More competition between providers leads to better services and lower prices for everyone, while cooperation can be critical for fixed cost sharing in deploying Next Generation Networks (NGN).
- Broad Participation: means community leaders advocate that public‐sector organizations, private enterprises, small and medium sized business, farmers and residents connect to the network and use it. The value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system (n2).
- Sustainability: If the foregoing principles of the network are in force then the network will be sustainable over the long term and serve the country well for years to come and require less taxpayer funded subsidization. Moreover, lack of equitable access to the Internet will cease being a barrier to economic prosperity and social well‐being for everyone.